Saint of the Day

Here are the saints for August 20, 2019, (All St. Bernard today) all wonderful; for they are the Church Triumphant.

What a blessing it is to read these stories each morning, and today, the feast of St. Bernard, the great friend of the Knights Templar, is very special.

Remember, the Saints are the good and holy bones of the Church.

The Catholic Church has many saints and reading about their lives has been a spiritual journey Catholics have been on since the publication of the Golden Legend,

From Butler’s Calendar of the Saints (which follows the old dating) listing all of the saints of today.

Here is a wonderful daily devotional site offering much to reflect on, including their version of saint of the day, Anastpaul

Here is what the 1962 Roman Missal (old dating) says about St. Bernard, Abbot, Doctor of the Church, “St. Bernard, born of noble Burgundian parents, was a monk of the Cistercian Order, a branch of the Benedictine Order. He became Abbot of the famous monastery of Clairvaux, which he himself had founded. The writings, sermons and letters of this great Doctor rendered invaluable services to the Church. He also preached the second crusade, and died at Clairvaux A. D. 1153.” (p. 1445). The Daily Missal and Liturgical Manual. (2004). To purchase this Missal for your library go to the publisher, Baronius Press: London:

From Butler’s Lives of the Saints, (old dating) by Alban Butler, Benziger Bros. edition, [1894], ST. BERNARD. “BERNARD was born at the castle of Fontaines, in Burgundy. The grace of his person and the vigor of his intellect filled his parents with the highest hopes, and the world lay bright and smiling before him when he renounced it forever and joined the monks at Citeaux. All his brothers followed Bernard to Citeaux except Nivard, the youngest, who was left to be the stay of his father in his old age. “You will now be heir of everything,” said they to him, as they departed. “Yes,” said the boy; “you leave me earth, and keep heaven for yourselves; do you call that fair?” And he too left the world.

“At length their aged father came to exchange wealth and honor for the poverty of a monk of Clairvaux. One only sister remained behind; she was married, and loved the world and its pleasures. Magnificently dressed, she visited Bernard; he refused to see her, and only at last consented to do so, not as her brother, but as the minister of Christ. The words he then spoke moved her so much that, two years later, she retired to a convent with her husband’s consent, and died in the reputation of sanctity. Bernard’s holy example attracted so many novices that other monasteries were erected, and our Saint was appointed abbot of that of Clairvaux.

“Unsparing with himself, he at first expected too much of his brethren, who were disheartened at his severity; but soon perceiving his error, he led them forward, by the sweetness of his correction and the mildness of his rule, to wonderful perfection. In spite of his desire to lie hid, the fame of his sanctity spread far and wide, and many churches asked for him as their Bishop. Through the help of Pope Eugenius III., his former subject, he escaped this dignity; yet his retirement was continually invaded: the poor and the weak sought his protection; bishops, kings, and popes applied to him for advice; and at length Eugenius himself charged him to preach the crusade. By his fervor, eloquence, and miracles Bernard kindled the enthusiasm of Christendom, and two splendid armies were dispatched against the infidel. Their defeat was only due, said the Saint, to their own sins. Bernard died in 1153. His most precious writings have earned for him the titles of the last of the Fathers and a Doctor of Holy Church.”

From Franciscan Media, (new dating) St. Bernard of Clairvaux, (1090 – August 20, 1153), “Man of the century! Woman of the century! You see such terms applied to so many today—“golfer of the century,” “composer of the century,” “right tackle of the century”—that the line no longer has any punch. But Western Europe’s “man of the twelfth century,” without doubt or controversy, had to be Bernard of Clairvaux. Adviser of popes, preacher of the Second Crusade, defender of the faith, healer of a schism, reformer of a monastic Order, Scripture scholar, theologian, and eloquent preacher: any one of these titles would distinguish an ordinary man. Yet Bernard was all of these—and he still retained a burning desire to return to the hidden monastic life of his younger days.

“In the year 1111, at the age of 20, Bernard left his home to join the monastic community of Citeaux. His five brothers, two uncles, and some 30 young friends followed him into the monastery. Within four years, a dying community had recovered enough vitality to establish a new house in the nearby valley of Wormwoods, with Bernard as abbot. The zealous young man was quite demanding, though more on himself than others. A slight breakdown of health taught him to be more patient and understanding. The valley was soon renamed Clairvaux, the valley of light.

“His ability as arbitrator and counselor became widely known. More and more he was lured away from the monastery to settle long-standing disputes. On several of these occasions, he apparently stepped on some sensitive toes in Rome. Bernard was completely dedicated to the primacy of the Roman See. But to a letter of warning from Rome, he replied that the good fathers in Rome had enough to do to keep the Church in one piece. If any matters arose that warranted their interest, he would be the first to let them know.

“Shortly thereafter it was Bernard who intervened in a full-blown schism and settled it in favor of the Roman pontiff against the antipope.

“The Holy See prevailed on Bernard to preach the Second Crusade throughout Europe. His eloquence was so overwhelming that a great army was assembled and the success of the crusade seemed assured. The ideals of the men and their leaders, however, were not those of Abbot Bernard, and the project ended as a complete military and moral disaster.

“Bernard felt responsible in some way for the degenerative effects of the crusade. This heavy burden possibly hastened his death, which came August 20, 1153.”

From Tradition in Action, (old dating) St. Bernard, “St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Abbot, Confessor and Doctor of the Church, 1090-1153. He is a Doctor of Marian devotion, the author of the Memorare; he was a counselor of Popes and Kings; he ended the schism caused by the Anti-Pope Anacletus II and fought against heretics. He also preached the Second Crusade.

“The following is an excerpt from the Rule of the Knights Templar inspired by St. Bernard. It is the oath the knight would take to enter the Order of the Temple:

“I swear that I will defend by my words, arms, and every possible means, even with the loss of my own life, the mysteries and articles of the Faith, the Seven Sacraments, the Symbols of the Apostles and of St. Athanasius, the Old and New Testaments with the explanations of the Holy Fathers approved by the Church, the unity of the Divine Nature and the Trinity of Persons in God, the virginity of the Virgin Mary before, during and after the parturition.

“I promise obedience to the Grand Master of the Order according to the statutes of our Blessed Father Bernard. I will engage in combat on foreign lands whenever it is necessary. I will never flee from the infidels, even should I be alone. I will observe perpetual chastity.

“I will assist with my words, arms, and actions religious persons, principally the abbots and religious of the Cistercian Order, as our brethren and special friends with whom we have a perpetual association.

“I voluntarily swear before God and His Holy Gospel that I will keep all these commitments.”

Respect for Cops

Even when I was an active criminal, I respected cops, always saw them as just doing their job, though I still tried to outwit them, but still, this article from City Journal strikes home; it’s tough out there.

An excerpt.

Since June of this year, six members of the NYPD have committed suicide, bringing the 2019 total to eight. This represents a sharp rise within the department, which has averaged between four and five suicides annually. The increase has many wondering how to curb a disturbing trend. I don’t pretend to have the answers, but I hope that these deaths will prompt reflection on the often-grim reality of being a cop. We should ask ourselves whether the critical posture that so many have taken (in New York, in particular) toward police in recent years reflects an appreciation of that reality.

When asked what they imagine would be the hardest part of being a cop, many people say that they think first of the risk of encountering dangerous situations—chasing a suspect into a dark alley, being shot at, or kicking down a door, not knowing who (or what) is on the other side. But police officers experience a variety of intense, traumatic incidents that can weigh just as heavily on their emotions and psyches; for instance, imagine the horror of attending to the scene of a car accident in which young children were killed. In 2013, researchers published a study in the International Journal of Stress Management, examining the relationship between “critical incidents” and the mental health of police officers. It found that such episodes are associated both with alcohol use and PTSD symptoms. “Critical incidents” include a range of experiences that police officers—among other first responders—might encounter, including “badly beaten child,” “decaying corpse,” “making a death notification,” and personal harm or injury.

According to a study published by The Ruderman Family Foundation, “one survey of 193 police officers from small and midsize police departments” found that the “average number of events witnessed by officers was 188” throughout their careers. Another study found that approximately 80 percent of police-officer participants “reported seeing dead bodies and severely assaulted victims in the past year,” while 63 percent had seen abused children. More than 64 percent reported seeing victims of a serious traffic accident. Almost 40 percent had seen someone die in front of them in the previous year.

Do the public and media appreciate the reality of police work? Police don’t seem to think so: according to a 2016 Pew survey of American cops, only 13 percent believe “that the public understands the risks and challenges that law enforcement officers face on the job.” More than 75 percent of officers believe that the media treats police unfairly. Instances of police misconduct exist, of course, and they justifiably lead to public scrutiny and condemnation; but we should resist the tendency to allow those events to shape how we view police more broadly.

We’ve seen how people treat police with disdain. Sometimes it’s epithets hurled from a crowd; sometimes it’s buckets of water poured over the head of an officer walking away, dejected. Or it can come in the form of an antipolice diatribe launched by a talking head on national television.

Retrieved August 19, 2019 from

Saints of the Day

Here are the saints for August 19, 2019, all wonderful; for they are the Church Triumphant.

What a blessing it is to read these stories each morning.

Remember, the Saints are the good and holy bones of the Church.

The Catholic Church has many saints and reading about their lives has been a spiritual journey Catholics have been on since the publication of the Golden Legend,

From Butler’s Calendar of the Saints (which follows the old dating) listing all of the saints of today.

Here is a wonderful daily devotional site offering much to reflect on, including their version of saint of the day, Anastpaul

Here is what the 1962 Roman Missal (old dating) says about St. John Eudes, Confessor, “St. John Eudes, born in Normandy, was educated by the Jesuits. Ordained Priest, he founded the Congregation of the Priests of Jesus and Mary, called Eudists, and the Congregation of the Sisters of Our Lady of Charity. As preacher, writer and founder he promoted public devotion to the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. He died A. D. 1680.” (p. 1444). The Daily Missal and Liturgical Manual. (2004). To purchase this Missal for your library go to the publisher, Baronius Press: London:

From Butler’s Lives of the Saints, (old dating) by Alban Butler, Benziger Bros. edition, [1894], ST. LOUIS, Bishop. “THIS Saint was little nephew to St. Louis, King of France, and nephew, by his mother, to St. Elizabeth of Hungary. He was born at Brignoles, in Provence, in 1274. He was a Saint from the cradle, and from his childhood made it his earnest study to do nothing which was not directed to the divine service, and with a view only to eternity.

“Even his recreations he referred to this end, and chose only such as were serious and seemed barely necessary for the exercise of the body and preserving the vigor of the mind. His walks usually led him to some church or religious house. It was his chief delight to hear the servants of God discourse of mortification or the most perfect practices of piety. His modesty and recollection in the church inspired with devotion all who saw him. When he was only seven years old his mother found him often lying in the night on a mat which was spread on the floor near his bed, which he did out of an early spirit of penance.

“In 1284 our Saint’s father, Charles II., then Prince of Salerno, was taken prisoner in a sea-fight by the King of Arragon, and was only released on condition that he sent into Arragon, as hostages, fifty gentlemen and three of his sons, one of whom was our Saint. Louis was set at liberty in 1294, by a treaty concluded between the King of Naples, his father, and James II., King of Arragon, one condition of which was the marriage of his sister Blanche with the King of Arragon. Both courts had at the same time extremely at heart the project of a double marriage, and that the princess of Majorca, sister to King James of Arragon, should be married to Louis, but the Saint’s resolution of dedicating himself to God was inflexible, and he resigned his right to the crown of Naples, which he begged his father to confer on his next brother, Robert.

“The opposition of his family obliged the superiors of the Friar Minors to refuse for some time to admit him into their body, wherefore he took holy orders at Naples. The pious Pope St. Celestine had nominated him Archbishop of Lyons in 1294; but, as he had not then taken the tonsure, he found means to defeat that project. Boniface VIII. gave him a dispensation to receive priestly orders in the twenty-third year of his age, and afterward sent him a like dispensation for the episcopal character, together with his nomination to the archbishopric of Toulouse, and a severe injunction, in virtue of holy obedience, to accept the same.

“However, he first made his religious profession among the Friar Minors on Christmas eve, 1296, and received the episcopal consecration in the beginning of the February following. He travelled to his bishopric as a poor religious, but was received at Toulouse with the veneration due to a Saint and the magnificence that became a prince. His modesty, mildness, and devotion inspired a love of piety in all who beheld him. It was his first care to provide for the relief of the indigent, and his first visits were made to the hospitals and the poor. In his apostolical labors, he abated nothing of his austerities, said Mass every day, and preached frequently. Being obliged to go into Provence for certain very urgent ecclesiastical affairs, he fell sick at the castle of Brignoles. Finding his end draw near, he received the Viaticum on his knees, melting in tears, and in his last moments ceased not to repeat the Hail Mary. He died on the 19th of August, 1297, being only twenty-three years and six months old.”

From Franciscan Media, (new dating) St. John Eudes, (November 14, 1601 – August 19, 1680), “How little we know where God’s grace will lead. Born on a farm in northern France, John died at 79 in the next “county” or department. In that time, he was a religious, a parish missionary, founder of two religious communities, and a great promoter of the devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

“John joined the religious community of the Oratorians and was ordained a priest at 24. During severe plagues in 1627 and 1631, he volunteered to care for the stricken in his own diocese. Lest he infect his fellow religious, during the plague he lived in a huge cask in the middle of a field.

“At age 32, John became a parish missionary. His gifts as a preacher and confessor won him great popularity. He preached over 100 parish missions, some lasting from several weeks to several months.

“In his concern with the spiritual improvement of the clergy, John realized that the greatest need was for seminaries. He had permission from his general superior, the bishop, and even Cardinal Richelieu to begin this work, but the succeeding general superior disapproved. After prayer and counsel, John decided it was best to leave the religious community.

“That same year John founded a new community, ultimately called the Eudists—the Congregation of Jesus and Mary–devoted to the formation of the clergy by conducting diocesan seminaries. The new venture, while approved by individual bishops, met with immediate opposition, especially from Jansenists and some of his former associates. John founded several seminaries in Normandy, but was unable to get approval from Rome—partly, it was said, because he did not use the most tactful approach.

“In his parish mission work, John was disturbed by the sad condition of prostitutes who sought to escape their miserable life. Temporary shelters were found, but arrangements were not satisfactory. A certain Madeleine Lamy, who had cared for several of the women, one day said to him, “Where are you off to now? To some church, I suppose, where you’ll gaze at the images and think yourself pious. And all the time what is really wanted of you is a decent house for these poor creatures.” The words, and the laughter of those present, struck deeply within him. The result was another new religious community, called the Sisters of Charity of the Refuge.

“John Eudes is probably best known for the central theme of his writings: Jesus as the source of holiness; Mary as the model of the Christian life. His devotion to the Sacred Heart and to the Immaculate Heart led Pope Pius XI to declare him the father of the liturgical cult of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary.”

From Tradition in Action, (old dating) St. John Eudes, “St. John Eudes was born in 1601 in the village of Ri, Normandy, France, to pious parents who consecrated him to the Holy Virgin. In 1615 he made a vow of chastity while he was studying with the Jesuits of Caen. On that occasion he consecrated himself to Mary, and from then was notable for his fervent devotion to her.

“He left the Jesuits to enter the Congregation of the Oratory, founded by the famous Fr. Pierre de Berulle, who worked to re-establish orthodoxy of doctrine and sanctity of life among the clergy. St. John Eudes thought that the training of priests should also be a priority, so in 1643, he left the Oratory and founded the Society of Jesus and Mary (the Eudists Fathers) to specialize in seminary education. Its first seminary opened in Caen, shortly followed by many others.

“In order to convert women of ill-fame and assist those who had converted from a wayward life, he founded another institution, the Congregation of Our Lady of Charity. He also instituted the parish mission to evangelize the neglected souls. For long years, he preached to large crowds in churches or the open fields, or in the courts of nobles and the King. His sermons were known for his strong condemnation of the vices of his audience and their great eloquence supported by his eminent sanctity.

“He spread the devotion to the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, and was responsible for getting the church to accept liturgical offices in its honor. Always faithful to the Chair of Peter, he was persecuted by the Jansenists, whom he counter-attacked with energy.

“He died August 19, 1680, pronouncing the names of Jesus and Mary.”

Saints of the Day

Here are the saints for August 18, 2019, all wonderful; for they are the Church Triumphant.

What a blessing it is to read these stories each morning.

Remember, the Saints are the good and holy bones of the Church.

The Catholic Church has many saints and reading about their lives has been a spiritual journey Catholics have been on since the publication of the Golden Legend,

From Butler’s Calendar of the Saints (which follows the old dating) listing all of the saints of today.

Here is a wonderful daily devotional site offering much to reflect on, including their version of saint of the day, Anastpaul

Here is what the 1962 Roman Missal (old dating) says about St. Agapitus, Martyr, “St. Agapitus, when only fifteen years old, endured many cruel tortures, and was beheaded at Praeneste in Italy A. D. 273.” (p. 1443). The Daily Missal and Liturgical Manual. (2004). To purchase this Missal for your library go to the publisher, Baronius Press: London:

From Butler’s Lives of the Saints, (old dating) by Alban Butler, Benziger Bros. edition, [1894], ST. HELENA, Empress; ST. AGAPETUS, Martyr. “IT was the pious boast of the city of Colchester, England, for many ages, that St. Helena was born within its walls; and though this honor has been disputed, it is certain that she was a British princess. She embraced Christianity late in life; but her incomparable faith and piety greatly influenced her son Constantine, the first Christian emperor, and served to kindle a holy zeal in the hearts of the Roman people. Forgetful of her high dignity, she delighted to assist at the Divine Office amid the poor; and by her alms-deeds showed herself a mother to the indigent and distressed. In her eightieth year she made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, with the ardent desire of discovering the cross on which our blessed Redeemer suffered.

“After many labors, three crosses were found on Mount Calvary, together with the nails and the inscription recorded by the Evangelists. It still remained to identify the true cross of Our Lord. By the advice of the bishop, Macarius, the three were applied successively to a woman afflicted with an incurable disease, and no sooner had the third touched her than she arose, perfectly healed. The pious empress, transported with joy, built a, most glorious church on Mount Calvary to receive the precious relic, sending portions of it to Rome and Constantinople, where they were solemnly exposed to the adoration of the faithful.

“In the year 312 Constantine found himself attacked by Maxentius with vastly superior forces, and the very existence of his empire threatened. In this crisis he bethought him of the crucified Christian God Whom his mother Helena worshipped, and kneeling down, prayed God to reveal Himself and give him the victory. Suddenly, at noonday, a cross of fire was seen by his army in the calm and cloudless sky, and beneath it the words, In hoc signo vinces—”Through this sign thou shalt conquer.” By divine command, Constantine made a standard like the cross he had seen, which was borne at the head of his troops; and under this Christian ensign they marched against the enemy, and obtained a complete victory. Shortly after, Helena herself returned to Rome, where she expired, 328.

“ST. AGAPETUS suffered in his youth a cruel martyrdom at Præneste, now called Palestrina, twenty-four miles from Rome, under Aurelian, about the year 275. His name is famous in the ancient calendars of the Church of Rome. Two churches in Palestrina and others in other places are dedicated to God under his name.”

From Tradition in Action, (old dating) St. Helena, August 18, “After her pilgrimage at age 80 to the Holy Land and the finding of the True Cross in 326, St. Helena left Jerusalem. Her return trip to Rome was marked by the many charitable works she performed. She built various churches, made generous donations to others, helped the poor and destitute, consoled the unfortunate, and opened the doors of prisons. The liberation of captives was, indeed, one of her glories.

“Her princely munificence was such that, according to Eusebius, she assisted not only individuals but entire communities. She manifested the same piety and benevolence wherever she went throughout her life.

“When she arrived in Rome, Constantine gave a grand reception in honor of his mother. On this occasion, she chose to present her son with the precious gift of a small parcel of the Holy Cross. She also gave a large fragment of the Holy Cross to the city of Rome, and later the Santa Croce Basilica was erected on that spot by Constantine to house it at her suggestion.

“Her return voyage to Rome was marked by a singular episode. While crossing the Adriatic Sea, the Empress heard accounts of the terrible and numerous drownings that often occurred there. She was so strongly moved by the stories that she took one of four nails that had crucified Our Lord, which she was bringing with her from Jerusalem, and threw it into the depths of the sea. St. Gregory of Tours relates the incident in his book The Glories of the Martyrs and adds that from that day on, the Adriatic Sea lost its furor.

“This was the last trip of St. Helena. She died in Rome in the year 330. Constantine and the princes, his sons, surrounded the bed of the Empress, where she gave two last counsels to the Emperor. Her last words were to tell him to watch over the Church and to be just. Finally, she gave him her final blessing; the Emperor was holding her hand when she took her last breath. Her body was brought to Constantinople and buried with great pomp in the imperial vault of the Church of the Apostles. The whereabouts of her relics are uncertain.

“St. Helena is a great historical character. Nature and grace harmonized perfectly in her. Raised to the throne in the world, she made Christianity sit on the throne for the first time. Her great beauty that brought her to the attention of Constantius was the means that God used for that end. Her illustrious and venerable name would have marked the beginning of a brilliant era if Constantine had been faithful to grace. No one knows how the course of History might have been if the artists could have also painted a halo over the head of Constantine, if the Emperor, like his mother, would have been canonized.”

The Catholic Eternity, Criminal Justice Approach at U.S. Department of Justice

This wonderful story from the Remnant Newspaper, written by the inimitable Christopher Ferrara, is about the U. S. Attorney General—who I did not know was Catholic—and what is really important in terms of the U. S. Department of Justice.

An excerpt.

“In an interview with Jan Crawford of CBS, Attorney General William Barr said something that should strike fear in the hearts of all the conspirators involved in the plot to remove President Trump from office based on fabricated evidence of the fabricated non-crime of “colluding with the Russians” or, failing that, to accuse him of obstructing the phony investigation of the fake crime.

“Crawford suggested that Barr was risking his reputation, “a reputation that you worked your whole life on,” by “protecting the President”—meaning, of course, exposing the illegal activities of the plotters. To which suggestion Barr replied:

“Yeah, but everyone dies and I’m not… You know, I don’t believe in the Homeric idea that, you know, immortality comes by, you know, having odes sung about you (chuckles) over the centuries, you know.

“In his own detailed analysis of the interview, Rush Limbaugh did not miss the significance of Barr’s reference to his own mortality:

“Okay, now, folks, this is really, really telling, and I think there’s actually a very great life lesson in this answer. The more I hear of Barr, the more I understand why nobody in the Drive-By Media is airing any of the excerpts of this interview. This answer is mind-blowing. The question comes from the standard desire in Washington… be seen as great, honorable, filled with integrity, unchallengeable and all that. She’s basically saying, “You’ve lost that now, because you’ve chosen to work with Trump, and now you’re not an honest guy!”

“And he says [paraphrasing], “You know what? I knew that, and that’s why I took the job. One of the reasons I was persuaded that maybe I should take this job, is I don’t have anything to prove to anybody. The only thing that matters to me is the integrity of the system of justice in this country. That’s what matters: The integrity of the Department of Justice. That’s what I have purview over. I’m not worried about me. I’ve lived most of my life, and I’m gonna die like we all are gonna die, and so all I’m faced with right now… All I need to worry about is the right thing as I see it.”

“Also cognizant of the significance of “everybody dies” were the fake news media, which had promoted the Russia Hoax relentlessly for two years until it vanished in a puff of smoke following publication of the doddering Robert Mueller’s ghostwritten, novelistic and legally meaningless report finding “no collusion”—meaning no evidence of the make-believe crime. Expressions of contempt, outrage and alarm quickly multiplied, including a lot of indignant harrumphing over at MSNBC:

“ARI MELBER: It`s not about whether or not you die. It`s about whether your reputation, your professional work, the oath you take to the office matters, Jason [Johnson].

“JOHNSON: Well, again, Ari, what Barr is basically saying is I don`t care what anyone thinks because I`m working for Trump. Many men wish death on me, I don`t care, right….

“What we have here is a believing Catholic, the son of a Jewish convert, who once dared to proclaim to a gathering of the Catholic League, followed by the loud alarums of Americans United for Separation of Church and State, that “To the extent that a society’s moral culture is based on God’s law, it will guide men toward the best possible life… The secularists of today are clearly fanatics.”

“Barr knows what happened here and I believe he will expose the perpetrators of Russiagate, which has to be far and away the biggest political scandal in American political history. To recall its basic elements:

“Corrupt members of the FBI (Comey, McCabe, Strozk, Page, et al), the Justice Department (Rosenstein, Bruce Ohr, et al) the “intelligence community” (Brennan and Clapper et al and their operatives here and abroad), the State Department (Kerry, Winer, Nuland) and members of foreign intelligence services in England, Italy, Australia all combined and conspired with Hillary Clinton and the DNC to frame Donald Trump for the non-existent crime of “colluding with the Russians” to “steal” the 2016 election from Hillary.

“The co-conspirators employed a phony dossier of Trump’s non-existent “ties to the Russian government,” compiled by Fusion GPS and Glenn Simpson under the name of a foreign agent, ex-MI-6 spy Christopher Steele, who desperately wanted to prevent Trump’s election. The millions of dollars in funding for this fraudulent scheme were funneled through the Perkins Coie law firm and characterized as “legal services” in order to circumvent campaign finance disclosure requirements.

“At the same time, Comey and his subordinates, including James Rybicki, his chief of staff, were conspiring to conduct a sham investigation of Hillary’s massive violations of the Espionage Act via her private server and personal devices, employed to avoid the creation of public records of her nefarious dealings as Secretary of State while a principal of her pay-for-play Clinton Foundation. The “investigators” agreed to allow Clinton and her lawyers to determine which limited range of emails she would produce (even though her lawyers had no security clearance to review classified emails) and then turned a blind eye to her sudden change of “retention policy” under which she deleted more than 30,000 relevant emails outside of her chosen range. The FBI agreed to destroy the devices she did produce, stripped of anything Hillary did not want the FBI to see, and further granted immunity from prosecution to everyone involved in the illegal email scheme, thus precluding any case against anyone, including Hillary, despite evidence sufficient to land a dozen ordinary citizens in jail.

“The same corrupt “intelligence community” that lied us into the disastrous Iraq War —now led by the hyper-partisans Brennan and Clapper, both demonstrable liars—floated the bogus “assessment” that “Russia” wanted Trump to win and Hillary to lose. The fake IC “assessment” was issued at the same time Steele’s “Russian sources” were assisting Hillary, the DNC and all the aforementioned government agents in preventing Trump from winning or else undermining his Presidency with the preposterous narrative that Trump is a Russian agent. Thus, at one and the same time, the lying “intelligence community,” Hillary and the DNC were all colluding with Russians while accusing the Russians of colluding with Trump.

“The “intelligence community” also alleged that “Russia” had hacked the DNC emails in order to help Trump and hurt Hillary. The only “evidence” for this claim was a redacted report by the private firm CrowdStrike, hired by the DNC. The FBI was never allowed to examine the DNC servers to determine if in fact they had been hacked by anyone, let alone Russia, as opposed to an internal leak of data copied to thumb drives. In a devastating report entitled “CrowdStrikeout,” Real Clear Investigations (Real Clear), no friend of Trump, shows that the alleged hacking by “Russia,” the very heart of the Russian Collusion Delusion, has never been established. Herewith the report’s principal conclusions:

“U.S. intelligence officials cannot make definitive conclusions about the hacking of the Democratic National Committee computer servers because they did not analyze those servers themselves. Instead, they relied on the forensics of CrowdStrike, a private contractor for the DNC that was not a neutral party, much as “Russian dossier” compiler Christopher Steele, also a DNC contractor, was not a neutral party. This puts two Democrat-hired contractors squarely behind underlying allegations in the affair – a key circumstance that Mueller ignores.”

Retrieved August 17, 2019 from

Saints of the Day

Here are the saints for August 17, 2019, all wonderful; for they are the Church Triumphant.

What a blessing it is to read these stories each morning.

Remember, the Saints are the good and holy bones of the Church.

The Catholic Church has many saints and reading about their lives has been a spiritual journey Catholics have been on since the publication of the Golden Legend,

From Butler’s Calendar of the Saints (which follows the old dating) listing all of the saints of today.

Here is a wonderful daily devotional site offering much to reflect on, including their version of saint of the day, Anastpaul

From Butler’s Lives of the Saints, (old dating) by Alban Butler, Benziger Bros. edition, [1894], St. LIBERATUS, Abbot, and Six Monks, Martyrs. “HUNERIC, the Arian Vandal king in Africa, in the seventh year of his reign, published fresh edicts against the Catholics, and ordered their monasteries to be everywhere demolished. Seven monks, named Liberatus, Boniface, Servus, Rusticus, Rogatus, Septimus, and Maximus, who lived in a monastery near Capsa, in the province of Byzacena, were at that time summoned to Carthage. They were first tempted with great promises, but as they remained constant in the belief of the Trinity, and of one Baptism, they were loaded with irons and thrown into a dark dungeon.

“The faithful, having bribed the guards, visited the Saints day and night, to be instructed by them and mutually to encourage one another to suffer for the faith of Christ. The king, learning this, commanded them to be more closely confined, loaded with heavier irons, and tortured with a cruelty never heard of till that time. Soon after, he condemned them to be put into an old ship and burnt at sea. The martyrs walked cheerfully to the shore, contemning the insults of the Arians as they passed along. Particular endeavors were used by the persecutors to gain Maximus, who was very young; but God, Who makes the tongues of children eloquent to praise His name, gave him strength to withstand all their efforts, and he boldly told them that they should never be able to separate him from his holy abbot and brethren, with whom he had borne the labors of a penitential life for the sake of everlasting glory.

“An old vessel was filled with dry sticks, and the seven martyrs were put on board and bound on the wood; and fire was put to it several times, but it went out immediately, and all endeavors to kindle it were in vain. The tyrant, in rage and confusion, gave orders that the martyrs’ brains should be dashed out with oars, which was done, and their bodies cast into the sea, which threw them all on the shore. The Catholics interred them honorably in the monastery of Bigua, near the Church of St. Celerinus. They suffered in the year 483.”

From Franciscan Media, (new dating) St. Joan of the Cross, (June 18, 1666 – August 17, 1736), “An encounter with a shabby old woman many dismissed as insane prompted Saint Joan to dedicate her life to the poor. For Joan, who had a reputation as a businesswoman intent on monetary success, this was a significant conversion.

“Born in 1666 in Anjou, France, Joan worked in the family business—a small shop near a religious shrine—from an early age. After her parents’ death she took over the shop. She quickly became known for her greediness and insensitivity to the beggars who often came seeking help.

“That was until she was touched by the strange woman who claimed she was on intimate terms with the deity. Joan, who had always been devout, even scrupulous, became a new person. She began caring for needy children. Then the poor, elderly, and sick came to her. Over time, she closed the family business so she could devote herself fully to good works and penance.

“She went on to found what came to be known as the Congregation of Saint Anne of Providence. It was then she took the religious name of Joan of the Cross. By the time of her death in 1736 she had founded 12 religious houses, hospices, and schools. Pope John Paul II canonized her in 1982.”

Saints of the Day

Here are the saints for August 16, 2019, all wonderful; for they are the Church Triumphant.

What a blessing it is to read these stories each morning and today is especially rewarding.

Remember, the Saints are the good and holy bones of the Church.

The Catholic Church has many saints and reading about their lives has been a spiritual journey Catholics have been on since the publication of the Golden Legend,

From Butler’s Calendar of the Saints (which follows the old dating) listing all of the saints of today.

Here is a wonderful daily devotional site offering much to reflect on, including their version of saint of the day, Anastpaul

Here is what the 1962 Roman Missal (old dating) says about St. Joachim, Confessor, Father of the Blessed Virgin Mary, “The holy Patriarch Joachim was the husband of St. Anne, and the father of our Lady. This feast, originally kept on March 20, was transferred to the day following the Assumption, in order to associate the Blessed Daughter and her holy father in triumph. (p. 1439). The Daily Missal and Liturgical Manual. (2004). To purchase this Missal for your library go to the publisher, Baronius Press: London:

From Butler’s Lives of the Saints, (old dating) by Alban Butler, Benziger Bros. edition, [1894], St. HYACINTH, “HYACINTH, the glorious apostle of Poland and Russia, was born of noble parents in Poland, about the year 1185. In 1218, being already Canon of Cracow, he accompanied his uncle, the bishop of that place, to Rome. There he met St. Dominic, and received the habit of the Friar Preachers from the patriarch himself, of whom be became a living copy. So wonderful was his progress in virtue that within a year Dominic sent him to preach and plant the Order in Poland, where he founded two houses.

“His apostolic journeys extended over numerous regions. Austria, Bohemia, Livonia, the shores of the Black Sea, Tartary, and Northern China on the east, and .Sweden and Norway to the west, were evangelized by him, and he is said to have visited Scotland. Everywhere multitudes were converted, churches and convents were built; one hundred and twenty thousand pagans and infidels were baptized by his hands. He worked numerous miracles, and at Cracow raised a dead youth to life. He had inherited from St. Dominic a most filial confidence in the Mother of God; to her he ascribed his success, and to her aid he looked for his salvation.

“When St. Hyacinth was at Kiev the Tartars sacked the town, but it was only as he finished Mass that the Saint heard of the danger. Without waiting to unvest, he took the ciborium in his hands, and was leaving the church. As he passed by an image of Mary a voice said: “Hyacinth, my son, why dust thou leave me behind? Take me with thee, and leave me not to mine enemies.” The statue was of heavy alabaster, but when Hyacinth took it in his arms it was light as a reed. With the Blessed Sacrament and the image he came to the river Dnieper, and walked dry-shod over the surface of the waters. On the eve of the Assumption he was warned of his coming death. In spite of a wasting fever, he celebrated Mass on the feast, and communicated as a dying man. He was anointed at the foot of the altar, and died the same day, 1257.”

From Franciscan Media, (new dating) St. Stephen of Hungary, (975 – August 15, 1038), “The Church is universal, but its expression is always affected—for good or ill—by local culture. There are no “generic” Christians; there are Mexican Christians, Polish Christians, Filipino Christians. This fact is evident in the life of Stephen, national hero and spiritual patron of Hungary.

“Born a pagan, he was baptized around the age of 10, together with his father, chief of the Magyars, a group who migrated to the Danube area in the ninth century. At 20, he married Gisela, sister to the future emperor, Saint Henry. When he succeeded his father, Stephen adopted a policy of Christianization of the country for both political and religious reasons. He suppressed a series of revolts by pagan nobles and welded the Magyars into a strong national group. He asked the pope to provide for the Church’s organization in Hungary—and also requested that the pope confer the title of king upon him. He was crowned on Christmas day in 1001.

“Stephen established a system of tithes to support churches and pastors and to relieve the poor. Out of every 10 towns one had to build a church and support a priest. He abolished pagan customs with a certain amount of violence, and commanded all to marry, except clergy and religious. He was easily accessible to all, especially the poor.

“In 1031, his son Emeric died, and the rest of Stephen’s days were embittered by controversy over his successor. His nephews attempted to kill him. He died in 1038 and was canonized, along with his son, in 1083.”

From Tradition in Action, (old dating) St. Cizy de Besançon, “In 778, after taking over Spain, the Saracens crossed the Pyrenees with an army of 40,000 and entered Gaul. They conquered a great part of the Septimania – a region in southern France – and reached the outskirts of Toulouse, constructing a great number of mosques along the Garonne River.

“Among the warriors filled with faith, who joined together to expel these enemies of Christ from the Gascogne, Cizy of Besançon stood out. He was a descendent of the ancient Dukes of Bourgogne and was as famous for his piety as his military valor. The ancient records of his martyrdom affirm that, under his soldier’s armor, he wore austere dress, making him a man of great gravity and modesty.

“Fulfilling all the duties of his Faith, he converted many of the unfaithful to the Catholic Church. In the tribunals of Charlemagne at which he assisted, Cizy addressed cases with amazing sagacity, even silencing the lawyers who were astounded at his competent application of the laws. Thus, he administered justice to all, giving each person his due, raising the admiration of those who witnessed it.

“In combat he often succored his injured companions by miraculously healing their wounds.

“This soldier of Christ received from Charlemagne the command of one-third of the knights who were defending the plains along the Garonne River. As the enemy advanced, Cizy readied the Catholic lines, inflaming his knights with these words:

“My companions in arms, fight courageously and you will win a celestial crown. Our enemies combat for earthly rewards, but we fight for an eternal glory. Do not be impressed by their numbers, but remember the prodigies the Lord has worked so many times against the infidels.”

“Cizy advanced against the enemy with such ardor that he broke the heavy lines of the Saracens. Surrounded on all sides, he was taken prisoner. The enemies offered him to let him live if he would embrace the religion of Mahomet. He rejected the offer with scorn and, adoring Jesus Crucified in his heart, asked for martyrdom. The infidels turned their rage against him and smashed him with their war hammers.

“The Catholic army, however, responded with even greater fury on hearing of the death of its chief. Not tarrying to take their revenge for its commander’s cowardly inflicted death, the knights attacked the Saracens, won the battle and filled the battlefield with their slaughtered corpses.

“Charlemagne had a marble tomb raised on that site, which still today conserves the name of Cizy, and had the body of the martyr brought there to be buried. Afterwards, with the loot taken from the battle, he built a chapel where, by the grace of God, many miracles were worked through the intercession of the warrior saint. (Paul Guérin, Les Petits Bollandistes Vies des Saints, Bar-le-Duc:Louis Guérin, 1873, pp. 633-634)”

Saint of the Day

Here are the saints for August 15, 2019, (All about the Assumption of Mary today) all wonderful; for they are the Church Triumphant.

What a blessing it is to read these stories each morning.

Remember, the Saints are the good and holy bones of the Church.

The Catholic Church has many saints and reading about their lives has been a spiritual journey Catholics have been on since the publication of the Golden Legend,

From Butler’s Calendar of the Saints (which follows the old dating) listing all of the saints of today.

Here is a wonderful daily devotional site offering much to reflect on, including their version of saint of the day, Anastpaul

Here is what the 1962 Roman Missal (old dating) says about The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, “Mary was cared for by St. John for twelve years after our Lord’s Resurrection. Her life was spent in helping the Apostles and in praying for the conversion of the world. On the third day after Mary’s death, when the Apostles gathered around her tomb, they found it empty. The sacred body had been carried up to the celestial paradise. Jesus Himself came to conduct her thither; the whole court of heaven came to welcome with songs of triumph the Mother of the Divine Word.” (p. 1435). The Daily Missal and Liturgical Manual. (2004). To purchase this Missal for your library go to the publisher, Baronius Press: London:

From Butler’s Lives of the Saints, (old dating) by Alban Butler, Benziger Bros. edition, [1894], THE ASSUMPTION OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY. “IN this festival the Church commemorates the happy departure from life of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and her translation into the kingdom of her Son, in which she received from Him a crown of immortal glory, and a throne above all the other Saints and heavenly spirits. After Christ, as the triumphant Conqueror of death and hell, ascended into heaven, His blessed Mother remained at Jerusalem, persevering in prayer with the disciples, till, with them, she had received the Holy Ghost.

“She lived to a very advanced age, but finally paid the common debt of nature, none among the children of Adam being exempt from that rigorous law. But the death of the Saints is rather to be called a sweet sleep than death; much more that of the Queen of Saints, who had been exempt from all sin. It is a traditionary pious belief, that the body of the Blessed Virgin was raised by God soon after her death, and taken up to glory, by a singular privilege, before the general resurrection of the dead. The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary is the greatest of all the festivals which the Church celebrates in her honor.

“It is the consummation of all the other great mysteries by which her life was rendered most wonderful; it is the birthday of her true greatness and glory, and the crowning of all the virtues of her whole life, which we admire single in her other festivals.”

From Franciscan Media, (new dating) Solemnity of the Assumption of Mary, “On November 1, 1950, Pope Pius XII defined the Assumption of Mary to be a dogma of faith: “We pronounce, declare and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma that the immaculate Mother of God, the ever Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul to heavenly glory.” The pope proclaimed this dogma only after a broad consultation of bishops, theologians and laity. There were few dissenting voices. What the pope solemnly declared was already a common belief in the Catholic Church.

“We find homilies on the Assumption going back to the sixth century. In following centuries, the Eastern Churches held steadily to the doctrine, but some authors in the West were hesitant. However by the 13th century there was universal agreement. The feast was celebrated under various names—Commemoration, Dormition, Passing, Assumption—from at least the fifth or sixth century. Today it is celebrated as a solemnity.

“Scripture does not give an account of Mary’s Assumption into heaven. Nevertheless, Revelation 12 speaks of a woman who is caught up in the battle between good and evil. Many see this woman as God’s people. Since Mary best embodies the people of both Old and New Testaments, her Assumption can be seen as an exemplification of the woman’s victory.

“Furthermore, in 1 Corinthians 15:20, Paul speaks of Christ’s resurrection as the first fruits of those who have fallen asleep.

“Since Mary is closely associated with all the mysteries of Jesus’ life, it is not surprising that the Holy Spirit has led the Church to believe in Mary’s share in his glorification. So close was she to Jesus on earth, she must be with him body and soul in heaven.”

From Tradition in Action, (old dating) The Assumption of Our Lady, “One often hears meditations on the sorrows of Our Lady, but people from times past, unlike contemporary men, also used to speak often about the joys of Our Lady. For this reason, one of the most famous sanctuaries in Brazil is the Church of Our Lady of the Pleasures, on Mount Guararapes, erected in honor of her joys.

“Today, the feast of the Assumption of Our Lady, let us consider her pleasures. There is a good reason to do this. St. Thomas Aquinas maintains that no one can subsist on earth in complete unhappiness. To support the suffering of life, a person needs to have some pleasure, even if it is small; otherwise a constant and intense sorrow is insupportable. He was not speaking of pleasures as the world imagines them, but about the good Catholic pleasures and joy.

“Our Lady had many joys. The Magnificat is the expression of the supreme one, the Incarnation, but there are others, such as those celebrated in the joyful mysteries of the Rosary. None was greater, in a certain sense, than that of the Assumption.”

Saints of the Day

Here are the saints for August 14, 2019, all wonderful; for they are the Church Triumphant.

What a blessing it is to read these stories each morning.

Remember, the Saints are the good and holy bones of the Church.

The Catholic Church has many saints and reading about their lives has been a spiritual journey Catholics have been on since the publication of the Golden Legend,

From Butler’s Calendar of the Saints (which follows the old dating) listing all of the saints of today.

Here is a wonderful daily devotional site offering much to reflect on, including their version of saint of the day, Anastpaul

Here is what the 1962 Roman Missal (old dating) says about The Vigil of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, “The Liturgy of the Mass, celebrated on this day is a fitting preparation for tomorrow’s ancient and solemn Feast of Our Lady.” (p. 1431) The Daily Missal and Liturgical Manual. (2004). To purchase this Missal for your library go to the publisher, Baronius Press: London:

From Butler’s Lives of the Saints, (old dating) by Alban Butler, Benziger Bros. edition, [1894], St. EUSEBIUS, Priest. “THE Church celebrates this day the memory of St. Eusebius, who opposed the Arians, at Rome, with so much zeal. He was imprisoned in his room by order of the Emperor Constantius, and sanctified his captivity by constant prayer. Another Saint of the same name, a priest and martyr, is commemorated on this day. In the reign of Diocletian and Maximian, before they had published any new edicts against the Christians, Eusebius, a holy priest, a man eminently endowed with the spirit of prayer and all apostolical virtues, suffered death for the Faith, probably in Palestine.

“The Emperor Maximian happening to be in that country, complaint was made to Maxentius, president of the province, that Eusebius distinguished himself by his zeal in invoking and preaching Christ, and the holy man was seized. Maximian was by birth a barbarian, and one of the roughest and most brutal and savage of all men. Yet the undaunted and modest virtue of this stranger, set off by a heavenly grace, struck him with awe. He desired to save the servant of Christ, but, like Pilate, would not give himself any trouble or hazard incurring the displeasure of those whom on all other occasions he despised.

“Maxentius commanded Eusebius to sacrifice to the gods, and on the Saint refusing, the president condemned him to be beheaded. Eusebius, hearing the sentence pronounced, said aloud, “I thank Your goodness and praise Your power, O Lord Jesus Christ, that, by calling me to the trial of my fidelity, You have treated me as one of Yours.” He at that instant heard a voice from heaven saying to him, “If you had not been found worthy to suffer, you could not be admitted into the court of Christ or to the seats of the just.” Being come to the place of execution, he knelt down, and his head was struck off.”

From Franciscan Media, (new dating) St. Maximilian Mary Kolbe, (January 8, 1894 – August 14, 1941), ““I don’t know what’s going to become of you!” How many parents have said that? Maximilian Mary Kolbe’s reaction was, “I prayed very hard to Our Lady to tell me what would happen to me. She appeared, holding in her hands two crowns, one white, one red. She asked if I would like to have them—one was for purity, the other for martyrdom. I said, ‘I choose both.’ She smiled and disappeared.” After that he was not the same.

“He entered the minor seminary of the Conventual Franciscans in Lvív–then Poland, now Ukraine– near his birthplace, and at 16 became a novice. Though Maximilian later achieved doctorates in philosophy and theology, he was deeply interested in science, even drawing plans for rocket ships.

“Ordained at 24, Maximilian saw religious indifference as the deadliest poison of the day. His mission was to combat it. He had already founded the Militia of the Immaculata, whose aim was to fight evil with the witness of the good life, prayer, work, and suffering. He dreamed of and then founded Knights of the Immaculata, a religious magazine under Mary’s protection to preach the Good News to all nations. For the work of publication he established a “City of the Immaculata”—Niepokalanow—which housed 700 of his Franciscan brothers. He later founded another one in Nagasaki, Japan. Both the Militia and the magazine ultimately reached the one-million mark in members and subscribers. His love of God was daily filtered through devotion to Mary.

“In 1939, the Nazi panzers overran Poland with deadly speed. Niepokalanow was severely bombed. Kolbe and his friars were arrested, then released in less than three months, on the feast of the Immaculate Conception.

“In 1941, Fr. Kolbe was arrested again. The Nazis’ purpose was to liquidate the select ones, the leaders. The end came quickly, three months later in Auschwitz, after terrible beatings and humiliations.

“A prisoner had escaped. The commandant announced that 10 men would die. He relished walking along the ranks. “This one. That one.”

“As they were being marched away to the starvation bunkers, Number 16670 dared to step from the line.

“I would like to take that man’s place. He has a wife and children.”

“Who are you?”

“A priest.”

“No name, no mention of fame. Silence. The commandant, dumbfounded, perhaps with a fleeting thought of history, kicked Sergeant Francis Gajowniczek out of line and ordered Fr. Kolbe to go with the nine. In the “block of death” they were ordered to strip naked, and their slow starvation began in darkness. But there was no screaming—the prisoners sang. By the eve of the Assumption, four were left alive. The jailer came to finish Kolbe off as he sat in a corner praying. He lifted his fleshless arm to receive the bite of the hypodermic needle. It was filled with carbolic acid. They burned his body with all the others. Fr. Kolbe was beatified in 1971 and canonized in 1982.”

Apostolic Palace’s St. Peter’s Relics Given Away

In a strange gesture, Pope Francis gave away nine small bone relics of our First Pope, St. Peter, kept in the Apostolic Palace, to the Orthodox Church in Constantinople, as reported by Life Site News.

Future Popes will surely miss these powerful relics.

An excerpt.

“ROME, July 3, 2019 (LifeSiteNews) — In an unexpected and what some in Rome are viewing as an ominous gesture, Pope Francis has given away relics of St. Peter the Apostle to an Orthodox patriarch.

“Following a solemn Mass on June 29, the liturgical feast of the Apostles Sts. Peter and Paul, the Pope gave a delegation representing Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople a bronze reliquary containing nine bone fragments of the first Pope.

“The Orthodox Church, while having a valid priesthood and sacraments, is not in full communion with Rome, in part because it does not accept papal primacy. Although a mutual withdrawal of excommunication between Rome and Constantinople was issued at the end of the Second Vatican Council by Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras, Catholics do not pray for the Orthodox patriarchs in their liturgy nor do the Orthodox pray for the Pope. There is no sacramental intercommunion between the Churches.

“The relics

“The nine bone fragments were among the relics of St. Peter discovered during excavations of the Vatican necropolis begun by Pope Pius XI in 1939. During the excavations, archaeologists discovered a funerary monument with a casket engraved with the Greek words Petros eni, or “Peter is here.”

“Following subsequent investigations, Italian archeologist Margherita Guarducci published a paper asserting that she had found the bones of St. Peter near the site identified as his tomb.

“In 1968, Pope Paul VI, convinced of the authenticity of the discovery, commissioned a bronze reliquary for nine bone fragments and kept the relics in his private chapel in the Apostolic Palace, where they have remained until now. Each year, on the June 29 liturgical feast of St. Peter and Paul, the relics were displayed in the chapel for the private veneration of the Roman Pontiff.

“The other relics of St. Peter still remain in a small niche in the wall under the main altar of St. Peter’s Basilica, in the place they were originally discovered.”

Retrieved August 13, 2019 from